Parents must be able to easily understand the information it contains. I have heard the following story many times during the past decade: A faculty redesigns its report card, trying to provide more helpful information to students and parents.
Individual[ edit ] The formalization of constructivism from a within-the-human perspective is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which information from the environment and ideas from the individual interact and result in internalized structures developed by learners.
He identified processes of assimilation and accommodation that are key in this interaction as individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. When individuals assimilate new information, they incorporate it into an already existing framework without changing that framework. This may occur when individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world, but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding; for example, they may not notice events, may misunderstand input from others, or may decide that an event is a fluke and is therefore unimportant as information about the world.
In contrast, when individuals' experiences contradict their internal representations, they may change their perceptions of the experiences to fit their internal representations. According to the theory, accommodation is the process of reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences.
Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which failure leads to learning: It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy. In fact, constructivism is a theory describing how learning happens, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to understand a lecture or following the instructions for building a model airplane.
In both cases, the theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. However, constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learningor learning by doing.
There are many critics of "learning by doing" a. Historical developments and symbol systems, such as language, logicand mathematical systemsare inherited by the learner as a member of a particular culture and these are learned throughout the learner's life.
This also stresses the importance of the nature of the learner's social interaction with knowledgeable members of the society. Without the social interaction with other more knowledgeable people, it is impossible to acquire social meaning of important symbol systems and learn how to utilize them.
Young children develop their thinking abilities by interacting with other children, adults and the physical world.
From the social constructivist viewpoint, it is thus important to take into account the background and culture of the learner throughout the learning process, as this background also helps to shape the knowledge and truth that the learner creates, discovers and attains in the learning process.
Social constructivism thus emphasizes the importance of the learner being actively involved in the learning process, unlike previous educational viewpoints where the responsibility rested with the instructor to teach and where the learner played a passive, receptive role.
Von Glasersfeld emphasized that learners construct their own understanding and that they do not simply mirror and reflect what they read.
Learners look for meaning and will try to find regularity and order in the events of the world even in the absence of full or complete information.
This is also named after the Harkness table and involves students seated in a circle, motivating and controlling their own discussion. The teacher acts as little as possible.
The students get it rolling, direct it, and focus it. They act as a team, cooperatively, to make it work. They all participate, but not in a competitive way. Rather, they all share in the responsibility and the goals, much as any members share in any team sport.
Although the goals of any discussion will change depending upon what's under discussion, some goals will always be the same: Discussion skills are important.This is accomplished by writing a Personal Leadership Philosophy, which states the core values you live by, what you expect of your people, what they can expect of you, and how you will evaluate.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Students and current professionals interested in continued post-baccalaureate education via graduate programs can find 's of programs to choose from on monstermanfilm.com Duke University; Duke on Facebook; Duke on Twitter; Duke on Instagram; Duke on Google Plus; Duke on YouTube; Duke University Durham, NC () - How to develop a leadership philosophy?
Take time to define your theory, attitude, principles, and expected behaviors, all core to a leadership philosophy. Introduction to Education. Measuring Up: The National Report Card on Higher Education; School: The Story of American Public Education from PBS; The Condition of Education: from the National Center of Education Statistics; Foundational Perspectives in Education: by Sally Atkin and Nora Cohen, Oregon State University; The Virtual Library from Schoolwise Press (hundreds of links to articles and.