AhtolaUniversity of Denver ABSTRACT - Recent criticism of traditional attitude concept and measurement leveled by consumer researchers who emphasize symbolic, esthetic, and hedonic aspects of consumption is reviewed. Traditional attitude concept is reviewed and the validity of the criticism is partly accepted.
Footnotes Introduction "The total amount of suffering per year in the natural world is beyond all decent contemplation. During the minute it takes me to compose this sentence, thousands of animals are being eaten alive; others are running for their lives, whimpering with fear; others are being slowly devoured from within by rasping parasites; thousands of all kinds are dying of starvation, thirst and disease.
Disease, starvation, predation, ostracism, and sexual frustration are endemic in so-called healthy ecosystems. The great taboo in the animal rights movement is that most suffering is due to natural causes. It lies behind the bad science in nature-documentary voiceovers: No one, either religious or irreligious, believes that the hurtful agencies of nature, considered as a whole, promote good purposes, in any other way than by inciting human rational creatures to rise up and struggle against them.
Rarely discussed is the topic of animal suffering in the wild, even in the academic literature, though there have been notable exceptions. Intense suffering is a regular feature of life in the wild that demands, perhaps not quick-fix intervention, but at least long-term research into the welfare of wild animals and technologies that might one day allow humans to improve it.
I conclude by Utilitarian hedonic animal advocates to focus their efforts to promote concern about wild-animal suffering among other activists, academics, and others who would be sympathetic -- both to encourage research on the issue and to ensure that our descendants use their advanced technologies in ways that alleviate wild-animal suffering rather than inadvertently multiply it.
Numbers of Wild Animals The scale of animal suffering at human hands is vast, and animal advocates are right to be appalled by its magnitude.
However, the numbers of animals that live in the wild are staggeringly larger. And while "Nature, red in tooth and claw" is widely known as a platitude, its visceral meaning can often be overlooked. Below I review some details of wild-animal suffering, perhaps in a manner similar to the way in which animal advocates decry acts of cruelty by humans.
Predation When people imagine suffering in nature, perhaps the first image that comes to mind is that of a lioness hunting her prey.
Christopher McGowan, for instance, vividly describes the death of a zebra: The lioness sinks her scimitar talons into the zebra's rump.
They rip through the tough hide and anchor deep into the muscle. The startled animal lets out a loud bellow as its body hits the ground. An instant later the lioness releases her claws from its buttocks and sinks her teeth into the zebra's throat, choking off the sound of terror.
Her canine teeth are long and sharp, but an animal as large as a zebra has a massive neck, with a thick layer of muscle beneath the skin, so although the teeth puncture the hide they are too short to reach any major blood vessels.
She must therefore kill the zebra by asphyxiation, clamping her powerful jaws around its trachea windpipecutting off the air to its lungs. It is a slow death. If this had been a small animal, say a Thomson's gazelle Gazella thomsoni the size of a large dog, she would have bitten it through the nape of the neck; her canine teeth would then have probably crushed the vertebrae or the base of the skull, causing instant death.
As it is, the zebra's death throes will last five or six minutes. From there, it uses its muscles to simultaneously crush the food and push it deeper into the digestive tract, where it is broken down for nutrients.
Similarly, humans sometimes don't feel pain immediately upon severe injury. Moreover, insofar as endorphins do sometimes reduce the painfulness of death, the same argument should apply for brutal slaughter of farm animals by humans, yet most animal-welfare scientists consider bad slaughter methods to be extremely painful.
Fear of predators produces not only immediate distress, but it may also cause long-term psychological trauma. In one study of anxiolytics, researchers exposed mice to a cat for five minutes and observed subsequent reactions.
They found "that this animal model of exposure of mice to unavoidable predatory stimuli produces early cognitive changes analogous to those seen in patients with acute stress disorder ASD. These findings indicate that memory impairments may persist for extended periods beyond a predatory stress.
Zoladz exposed rats to unavoidable predators and other anxiety-causing conditions to "produce changes in rat physiology and behavior that are comparable to the symptoms observed in PTSD patients.Hedonic vs.
utilitarian consumption: A cross-cultural perspective based on cultural conditioning (hedonic) benefit claims. When hedonic/utilitarian products are promoted using hedonic/utilitarian benefit claims, there is some liking for the ad because of the congruity .
"The modern version of introspection is the sum total of all those highly individualized choices that we make about the material content of our lives.". "Turpin, Lisa!" Whisper whisper whisper harry potter whisper whisper slytherin whisper whisper no seriously what the hell whisper whisper "RAVENCLAW!".
Hedonic and Utilitarian Aspects of Consumer Behavior: an Attitudinal Perspective Olli T. Ahtola, University of Denver ABSTRACT - Recent criticism of traditional attitude concept and measurement leveled by consumer researchers who emphasize symbolic, esthetic, and hedonic aspects of consumption is reviewed.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain).However upon finally gaining said pleasure, happiness may remain stationary. Harry Potter and the Methods of Rationality: The Audio Book mp3.
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