A Commentary on the Book of Crimes and Punishments. The Occasion of this Commentary. On the Punishment of Heretics.
Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy, ed. The University of Chicago Laboratory School is one of the most distinguished pioneer schools of the progressive education movement.
This entry discusses the history of the school, its purpose, and its teaching philosophy and methods. The school, since October officially called University Elementary School and since Octoberincluding a sub-primary department, grew continuously, reaching its peak inwith children predominantly of the wealthy and educated classes23 teachers, and 10 graduate students as teaching assistants.
In OctoberDewey appointed his wife Alice principal of the school. Blaine and headed by Francis W. Because of her unprofessional conduct and poor management, less because of the issue of nepotism, Alice Dewey faced such powerful opposition, in particular from the former Parker school faculty representing more than 70 per cent of the teaching staffthat Harper had no other choice but to ask for her resignation as school principal.
Dewey, anyway frustrated by administrative duties and the failure to shape the consolidated school according to his own ideas, resigned too and left Chicago in May for a professorship at Columbia University, New York City.
The ultimate aim Dewey strived for with his experimental school was laying the foundation for a reform which would revolutionize the educational system and, over time, transform the society into a great democratic community.
Parents who feared their children might be misused as guinea pigs were reassured that the school did not experiment with children, but for children. Apart from serving as an educational laboratory, the school felt obliged to bestow a sound and liberal education upon the students in its care.
Didactic and Psychological Premises Dewey, a mild-mannered philosopher and psychologist who had failed as a high school teacher because he could not persuade his adolescent students to behave and learn properly, did not give the Laboratory School teachers detailed instructions on what and how to teach; he rather provided them with general principles and suggestions for developing a vital and innovative curriculum.
Inspired by Herbartian precedents, Dewey devised a didactic scheme consisting of three components: The psychological, that is, the natural impulses and interests of children that could be utilized for attaining their attention and moving them to accept as their own the topics, tasks, and projects proposed by the teacher 2.
The sociological, that is, the social attitudes and practices the students should know about to succeed in life and play their part in a social and participatory democracy 3. The logical, that is, the organized contents and methods the students should study to understand the substance of subjects and the structure of science needed to survive in and contribute to the advancement of an industrial and progressive society.
All three elements had to be thought of and striven for at the same time, or else the teacher fell short of her educational mission.
Dewey identified four interests and activities every child possessed: In addition to didactic considerations, Dewey made use of two psychological concepts. Ideally, children acquired new knowledge and skills naturally by experiencing real life situations at first-hand.
Yet mere action and activity were not enough. For if the continuous interaction with the environment was interrupted, and if the use of familiar precepts and routines was hindered, the individual would stop, analyze the problem, search for an alternative, develop a strategy of action, and try to overcome the hindrance by applying the plan that had emerged.
Coping with problematic situations by thinking and doing, children would learn, retain, and retrieve significant information definitely better than using the traditional methods of memorizing and reciting.
Learning Through Occupations At the Laboratory School, the students were to grow emotionally, socially, and intellectually in ways that had continuity with both their previous experiences and their present lives.
To provide the basis for active and cheerful learning, diverse measures were implemented: Instead of beginning with reading, writing, arithmetic as is traditionally done, the lessons at the Laboratory School concentrated from the start on topics and issues pertaining to actual life and the meeting basic human needs like food, clothing, and shelter.
In accord with the theory of culture epochs, the curriculum followed nature, while the children relived the stages it was believed that mankind had taken in hundreds if not thousands of years as the race moved from from being hunters and collectors to being farmers, craftsmen, and manufacturers.
In cooking, for example, the students learned and practiced reading when they wished to decipher cookbooks, writing when they wanted to record their favorite recipes, and arithmetic when they had to count eggs, weigh flower, and measure milk.
The occupations in cooking, weaving, sewing, and gardening, woodwork and metalwork were lifelike, yet had to be simplified, purified, and enriched so that the children were not overtaxed in their mental ability, damaged in their moral growth, or captivated in their narrow world-view.
In fact, the occupations were conceived so broadly that they integrated considerable subject matter in literature, art, history, geography, chemistry, and physics, and included excursions to parks, farms, and factories, to libraries and museums, with the objective of extending the horizon of the students beyond the familiar and the immediately necessary.
Moreover, the teacher chose and suggested problems and situations of such nature that the students had to pass through the complete act of thinking and doing and to refer to knowledge and experiences of past and present generations i.
At the Laboratory School, the teacher had to alter her professional attitude and to take over new roles and functions.
For her students, she was not a taskmaster and disciplinarian who relied on compulsion and punishment, on grades, examinations, and certificates, but a leader and guide in exciting and challenging activities.The Indolence of the Filipinos: Summary and Analysis.
La Indolencia de los Filipinos, more popularly known in its English version, "The Indolence of the Filipinos," is a exploratory essay written by Philippine national hero Dr. Jose Rizal, to explain the alleged idleness of his people during the Spanish colonization.
Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Mahatma Gandhi In the attitude of silence the soul finds the path in a clearer light, and what is elusive and deceptive resolves itself into crystal clearness.
Feb 17, · Many Victorians struggled to understand and explain poverty. Was this because of circumstances beyond the individual's control or the direct result of their indolence? monstermanfilm.com! Oh! eh! What have I done to merit these cruel sufferings? 1: monstermanfilm.com things; you have ate and drank too freely, and too much indulged those legs of yours in their indolence.
INTRODUCTION. In literature this period is known as the Augustan age. According to Hudson the epithet ―Augustan‖ was applied as a term of high praise, because the Age of Augustus was the golden age of Latin literature, so the Age of Pope was the golden age of English literature.