Teaching word meanings should be a way for students to define their world, to move from light to dark, to a more fine-grained description of the colors that surround us. Although the causal direction of the relation is not understood clearly, there is evidence that the relationship is largely reciprocal. However, not all approaches to teaching word meanings improve comprehension.
There is extensive research indicating that a rich teaching reading writing and vocabulary development is a critical element of reading ability. Laflamme states that recent research has identified vocabulary knowledge as the single most important factor in reading comprehension. There is, likewise, no shortage of studies documenting a strong link between reading and writing.
The processes are so closely aligned that some researchers even advocate teaching reading and writing simultaneously, rather than as two separate subjects Laflamme, If the writing process is inextricably linked to the reading process, and the reading process is heavily dependent upon vocabulary, it naturally follows that the writing process is likewise dependent.
This digest will explore some of the ways vocabulary influences writing ability, and how teachers can use vocabulary development specifically to improve writing skills.
Once students have learned to decode words, they may be able to read and pronounce many words that are unfamiliar to them. They may even be able to determine accurate meanings of unfamiliar words simply by examining the context in which those words are used.
During the writing process, however, a student does not have the luxury of examining the context in which a word is used; he or she is creating the context. Therefore, the writer must be able to spontaneously recall words that are known not only by sight, but that are understood well enough to use correctly.
As Ediger notes, "variety in selecting words to convey accurate meanings is necessary in speaking and writing, the outgoes of the language arts" p.
Corona, Spangenberger, and Venet concur: Laflamme offers several key principles that should guide the creation and implementation of a comprehensive vocabulary development program.
Teachers must offer direct instruction of techniques or procedures for developing a broad and varied vocabulary. This instruction can be provided both formally through the language arts program, and informally through various classroom interactions-such as story time-with students.
If students are unable to contextualize new words by attaching them to words and concepts they already understand, the words will likely have little meaning to them. And as Ediger points out, "if meaning is lacking, the chances are pupils will memorize terms and concepts for testing purposes only or largely" p.
Students should be able to contextualize the vocabulary terms they have learned and use them in society Ediger,p. In order for students to do this successfully, they must first learn to become comfortable using these words in the classroom.
Students should be required or encouraged to incorporate new vocabulary terms into their oral and written reports and presentations. Practice and repetition are important methods by which students can become familiar with new words and under- stand how they may be used correctly Laflamme, Students should be frequently exposed to the same words through practice exercises, classroom use, and testing.
Teachers should model an enthusiasm for and curiosity about new words through their own behaviors and attitudes. Teachers who are enthusiastic about vocabulary development will automatically look for "teachable moments" throughout the day, pointing out interesting words as they crop up in texts, stories, or conversation; asking students to explore alternative ways of expressing concepts; and helping identify colorful, descriptive ways of speaking and writing.
Schools, teachers, and students must be committed to vocabulary development over the long term. The teaching of vocabulary must be an interdisciplinary project, integrated into the curriculum at every level. Improvement in vocabulary will result in improved writing skills only if the teacher is able to create a classroom that takes writing seriously.
The following are techniques teachers can use to create a writing-centered classroom.
Sloan explains that in her quest to help her students become better writers, she "went to the best source for teaching good writing: By having students read or reading aloud to them books, poems, and stories that contain interesting vocabulary, teachers can both introduce new words and provide a forum for discussing them.
Helping students become aware of and look for interesting words. There are many different forms this can take. For example, students could pair up and look through books for words that catch their attention, then write down common words that the author could have used instead. Other methods include having students: Offering a variety of writing opportunities.
The authors go on to note that students have a greater investment in their writing when they are given choices about their assignments. Such choices may include journal or diary entries, weekly logs summarizing journal entries, book reports, outlines, poetry, autobiographies, short stories, or any number of variations on the above.
The teaching of writing should be approached as a process that must be studied in depth, and substantial blocks of time should be devoted to writing.The good news for teachers from research in vocabulary development is that vocabulary instruction does improve reading comprehension (Stahl 2).
However, not all approaches to teaching word meanings improve comprehension. Meaningful use —multiple opportunities to use new words in reading, writing and soon W. Teaching Vocabulary . recognized in the development of reading skills. As early as , researchers noted that growth in Reading Writing Expressive Vocabulary Literate/Written Vocabulary Receptive Vocabulary Listening Speaking Figure 1 Teaching and Developing Vocabulary The amount of vocabulary that children need to.
Reading, writing, speaking, and understanding academic English happen in the classroom. Using a combination of the following strategies will help ELLs to close the gap. Classroom strategies: Vocabulary. In this post, we’ll share four classroom games that we also find effective in teaching vocabulary to English Language monstermanfilm.com Box GridWe use this simple game, which we learned and modified from English teacher Katie Toppel, a lot.
As you can see from the image, it’s just a matter of putting nine words (or, when we teach phonics, letters) on a numbered three-by-three grid (for a total.
Oral Language and Vocabulary Development Kindergarten & First Grade Reading First National Conference, writing output. reading input. speech sound system. letter memory.
Phonemic Awareness. Fluency.
Phonics. Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words. For a long time now I have been reading about vocabulary development. After teaching English Language and English Literature for over a decade and a half (including child language acquisition), I came to the stark realisation that I didn't know enough about how children not only learnt to read, but went on to read to learn.
Vocabulary - a vital strand of reading .