We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. The Witch-Hunt in Modern Europe by Brian Levack proved to be an interesting as well as insightful look at the intriguing world of the European practice of witchcraft and witch-hunts. The book offers a solid, reasonable interpretation of the accusation, prosecution, and execution for witchcraft in Europe between and Levack focuses mainly on the circumstances from which the witch-hunts emerged, as this report will examine.
Wicca During the 20th century, interest in witchcraft in English-speaking and European countries began to increase, inspired particularly by Margaret Murray 's theory of a pan-European witch-cult originally published insince discredited by further careful historical research.
The truth of Gardner's claim is now disputed too, with different historians offering evidence for   or against    the religion's existence prior to Gardner.
The Wicca that Gardner initially taught was a witchcraft religion having a lot in common with Margaret Murray's hypothetically posited cult of the s. Wicca is now practised as a religion of an initiatory secret society nature with positive ethical principles, organised into autonomous covens and led by a High Priesthood.
There is also a large "Eclectic Wiccan" movement of individuals and groups who share key Wiccan beliefs but have no initiatory connection or affiliation with traditional Wicca.
Wiccan writings and ritual show borrowings from a number of sources including 19th and 20th-century ceremonial magicthe medieval grimoire known as the Key of SolomonAleister Crowley 's Ordo Templi Orientis and pre-Christian religions. Since Gardner's death inthe Wicca that he claimed he was initiated into has attracted many initiates, becoming the largest of the various witchcraft traditions in the Western world, and has influenced other Neopagan and occult movements.
Witchcraft, feminism, and media[ edit ] Wiccan literature has been described as aiding the empowerment of young women through its lively portrayal of female protagonists.
Part of the recent growth in Neo-Pagan religions has been attributed to the strong media presence of fictional works such as the Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Harry Potter series with their depictions of witchcraft.
Wiccan beliefs are currently often found to be compatible with liberal ideals such as the Green movementand particularly with feminism by providing young women with means for empowerment and for control of their own lives.
The Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco suggests that Wiccan religion represents the second wave of feminism that has also been redefined as a religious movement.
Stregheria Stregheria is an Italian witchcraft religion popularised in the s by Raven Grimassiwho claims that it evolved within the ancient Etruscan religion of Italian peasants who worked under the Catholic upper classes.
Leland's witches do not see Lucifer as the evil Satan that Christians see, but a benevolent god of the Sun and Moon. The pentagram is the most common symbol of religious identity.
Most followers celebrate a series of eight festivals equivalent to the Wiccan Wheel of the Yearthough others follow the ancient Roman festivals.
An emphasis is placed on ancestor worship. Traditional witchcraft Traditional witchcraft is a term used to refer to a variety of contemporary forms of witchcraft.
Pagan studies scholar Ethan Doyle White described it as "a broad movement of aligned magico-religious groups who reject any relation to Gardnerianism and the wider Wiccan movement, claiming older, more "traditional" roots.
Although typically united by a shared aesthetic rooted in European folklore, the Traditional Craft contains within its ranks a rich and varied array of occult groups, from those who follow a contemporary Pagan path that is suspiciously similar to Wicca to those who adhere to Luciferianism ".
Schulke, the current Magister of the Cultus Sabbati, when he proclaimed that traditional witchcraft "refers to a coterie of initiatory lineages of ritual magic, spellcraft and devotional mysticism".
Satanism is a broad term referring to diverse beliefs that share a symbolic association with, or admiration for, Satanwho is seen as a liberating figure.
While it is heir to the same historical period and pre-Enlightenment beliefs that gave rise to modern witchcraft, it is generally seen as completely separate from modern witchcraft and Wicca, and has little or no connection to them.
Modern witchcraft considers Satanism to be the "dark side of Christianity" rather than a branch of Wicca: Christianity can be characterized as having the diametrically opposite views to these. The two major trends are theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism ; the former venerates Satan as a supernatural patriarchal deitywhile the latter views Satan as merely a symbolic embodiment of certain human traits.
Sloane also corresponded with his contemporary Gerald Gardnerfounder of the Wicca religion, and implied that his views of Satan and the horned god were not necessarily in conflict with Gardner's approach.
However, he did believe that, while "gnosis" referred to knowledge, and " Wicca " referred to wisdom, modern witches had fallen away from the true knowledge, and instead had begun worshipping a fertility goda reflection of the creator god.
He wrote that "the largest existing body of witches who are true Satanists would be the Yezedees ". Sloane highly recommended the book The Gnostic Religion, and sections of it were sometimes read at ceremonies. For example, they were allowed in the British Royal Navy in   and an appeal was considered in for religious status as a right of prisoners by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Rather, Lucifer in this context is seen as one of many morning stars, a symbol of enlightenment,  independence and human progression. Madeline Montalban was an English witch who adhered to a specific form of luciferianism which revolved around the veneration of Lucifer, or Lumiel, whom she considered to be a benevolent angelic being who had aided humanity's development.
Within her Order, she emphasised that her followers discover their own personal relationship with the angelic beings, including Lumiel.
It played a conspicuous role in the cultures of ancient Egypt and in Babylonia. A section from the Code of Hammurabi about B. If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge.
If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death.
He that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him.From the description of the problem, there’s not a “shut it down for five years and fix it” option.
The problems with the dam require a high level of ongoing maintenance, for as long as the dam exists. Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision, and cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution.
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A Brief History of Western Anti . The European Witch Hunt is one of the most fascinating and amazing events in the middle Ages - Why did regional variations exist in the prosecution of witches between - ?
introduction. It developed from a small matter, which was investigated due to the lack of knowledge about witches and eventually turned into a.
Let us write you a custom essay sample on ##customtitle## For example the witches in Macbeth were perfectly believable and began to stir the thinking of the people.
These rituals became the necessary requirements in the execution of witches, in order to fulfill their duty to the church. The Judicial System of the Salem Witch Trials.