Tension between Rhetoric and Technology Counter-Histories of Birth Control Future Agenda for Reproductive Health Bibliography Introduction The history of birth control enables us to understand the global reverberations of an agenda for wider dissemination of contraceptive information that began in the in the early twentieth century. For most part, advocates of birth control in countries such as India, Japan, South Africa, Canada, Great Britain, and the United States came from privileged social, cultural, and economic backgrounds.
Margaret Sanger worked as a visiting nurse in the slums of the East Sidewhile her husband worked as an architect and a house painter.
Already imbued with her husband's leftist politics, Margaret Sanger also threw herself into the radical politics and modernist values of pre-World War I Greenwich Village bohemia. She joined the Women's Committee of the New York Socialist party, took part in the labor actions of the Industrial Workers of the World including the notable Lawrence textile strike and the Paterson silk strike and became involved with local intellectuals, left-wing artists, socialists and social activists, including John ReedUpton SinclairMabel Dodge and Emma Goldman.
By the standards of the day, Sanger's articles were extremely frank in their discussion of sexuality, and many New York Call readers were outraged by them. Other readers, however, praised the series for its candor. One stated that the series contained "a purer morality than whole libraries full of hypocritical cant about modesty".
Access to contraceptive information was prohibited on grounds of obscenity by the federal Comstock law and a host of state laws. Seeking to help these women, Sanger visited public libraries, but was unable to find information on contraception.
Afterward, Sadie begged the attending doctor to tell her how she could prevent this from happening again, to which the doctor simply advised her to remain abstinent.
A few months later, Sanger was called back to Sadie's apartment — only this time, Sadie" died shortly after Sanger arrived.
She had attempted yet another self-induced abortion. She launched a campaign to challenge governmental censorship of contraceptive information through confrontational actions.
Sanger became estranged from her husband inand the couple's divorce was finalized in This page pamphlet contained detailed and precise information and graphic descriptions of various contraceptive methods. In August Margaret Sanger was indicted for violating postal obscenity laws by sending The Woman Rebel through the postal system.
Rather than stand trial, she fled the country. She shared their concern that over-population led to poverty, famine and war. Another notable person she met around this time was Marie Stopeswho had run into Sanger after she had just given a talk on birth control at a Fabian Society meeting.
Stopes showed Sanger her writings and sought her advice about a chapter on contraception. William Sanger was tried and convicted, spending thirty days in jail while attracting interest in birth control as an issue of civil liberty. InSlee would smuggle diaphragms into New York through Canada : Birth control movement in the United States This page from Sanger's Family Limitation, edition, describes a cervical cap Some countries in northwestern Europe had more liberal policies towards contraception than the United States at the time, and when Sanger visited a Dutch birth control clinic inshe learned about diaphragms and became convinced that they were a more effective means of contraception than the suppositories and douches that she had been distributing back in the United States.
Diaphragms were generally unavailable in the United States, so Sanger and others began importing them from Europe, in defiance of United States law. Sanger continued seeing some women in the clinic until the police came a second time.
This time, Sanger and her sister, Ethel Byrnewere arrested for breaking a New York state law that prohibited distribution of contraceptives. Sanger was also charged with running a public nuisance. She was force-fed, the first woman hunger striker in the US to be so treated. Crane of the New York Court of Appeals issued a ruling which allowed doctors to prescribe contraception.
Therefore we hold that every woman must possess the power and freedom to prevent conception except when these conditions can be satisfied. After Sanger's appeal of her conviction for the Brownsville clinic secured a court ruling that exempted physicians from the law prohibiting the distribution of contraceptive information to women provided it was prescribed for medical reasonshe established the Clinical Research Bureau CRB in to exploit this loophole.
In China she observed that the primary method of family planning was female infanticide, and she later worked with Pearl Buck to establish a family planning clinic in Shanghai.
From onward, she frequently lectured in churches, women's clubs, homes, and theaters to workers, churchmen, liberals, socialists, scientists, and upper-class women. The first, My Fight for Birth Control, was published in and the second, more promotional version, Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography, was published in · PUBLIC HEALTH AND CONTRACEPTION Reliable birth control has helped couples plan both the size and spacing of their families and has contributed to slowing the population growth rate.
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