The Cold War reshaped the world and the generations of Americans that lived under its shadow. The Germans had pillaged their way across Eastern Europe, and the Soviets had pillaged their way back.
See Article History Alternative Title: He received the Nobel Prize for Peace in Early life and military career Marshall was descended on both sides of his family from settlers who had been in Virginia since the 17th century. After a poor beginning at the institute, Marshall steadily improved his record, and he soon showed proficiency in military subjects.
Once he had decided on a military career, he concentrated on leadership and ended his last year at the institute as first captain of the corps of cadets. Marshall finished college in Marshall early developed the rigid self-discipline, the habits of study, and the attributes of command that eventually brought him to the top of his profession.
Men who served under him spoke of his quiet self-confidence, his lack of flamboyance, his talent for presenting his case to both soldiers and civilians, and his ability to make his subordinates want to do their best. Somewhat aloof in manner, he seemed to some acquaintances cold by nature, but he had a fierce temper held under careful control and a great affection and warmth for those close to him.
Happily married for 25 years to his first wife until her death inhe remarried three years later, taking as his second wife a widow, Katherine Tupper Brown, whose three children gave him the family he had hitherto lacked.
Service in World Wars I and II After his first service in the Philippines —03he advanced steadily through the ranks, ultimately becoming general of the army in December In World War I he served as chief of operations of the 1st Division, the first division to go to France inand then as the chief of operations of the First Army during the Meuse-Argonne offensive in After the war he served for five years as aide to Gen.
Pershing —24 and for five years as assistant commandant in charge of instruction at the Infantry School in Fort Benning, Georgia —33where he strongly influenced army doctrine as well as many officers who were to become outstanding commanders in World War II.
Marshall was sworn in as chief of staff of the U. For the next six years, Marshall directed the raising of new divisions, the training of troops, the development of new weapons and equipment, and the selection of top commanders.
When he entered office, the U. Under his direction it expanded in less than four years to a well-trained and well-equipped force of 8, As a representative of the U. So valuable was his service to Pres. Roosevelt that he was kept on at the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington while command over the cross-Channel invasion was given to Gen.
Diplomatic career A few days after Marshall resigned as chief of staff on November 21,Pres. Truman persuaded him to attempt, as his special representative, to mediate the Chinese Civil War.
Though his efforts were unsuccessful, in January he was appointed secretary of state. In June of that year he proposed the European Recovery Program—known as the Marshall Plan —which played an important role in the reconstruction of war-torn Europe.
Also significant during his secretaryship were the provision of aid to Greece and Turkey, the recognition of Israeland the initial discussions that led to the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO. Marshall left his position because of ill health in Newsreel report on U.
Secretary of State George C. Department of State After Marshall remained on the active-duty list as the highest-ranking general of the army, available for consultation by the government.
In he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in recognition of his contributions to the economic rehabilitation of Europe after World War II and his efforts to promote world peace and understanding.
The direct military cost to the U. It required three to five years for the United States to bring the various components of its power actually to bear against the axis.NSC, National Security Council Paper NSC (entitled “United States Objectives and Programs for National Security” and frequently referred to as NSC) was a Top-Secret report completed by the U.S.
Department of State’s Policy Planning Staff on April 7, George Frost Kennan (February 16, – March 17, ) was an American diplomat and historian.
He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States.
He was . Containment and the Cold War In February , George F.
Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, proposed a policy of containment. Containment is the blocking of another nation’s attempts to spread its influence.
In a speech to Harvard University in , Secretary of State George C.
Marshall proposed that a post-war European aid program be initiated. Less than a year later, the Marshall Plan was a reality.
The Marshall Plan created an . From after World War II and up until the foreign policy of the United States was based on Cold War ideology and the policy of containment; to prevent nations from leaning towards Soviet Union-based communism, as first laid out by George Kennan and later used as one of the key principles in the.
Containment was a foreign policy of the United States of America, introduced at the start of the Cold War, aimed at stopping the spread of Communism and keeping it "contained" and isolated within its current borders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or the Soviet Union) instead of.